(Kagan, 1990)

Purpose: Think-Pair-Share (TPS) is a cooperative structure in which partners privately think about a question (or issue, situation, idea, etc.), then discuss their responses with one another. As a relatively simple structure that can be implemented quickly, Think-Pair-Share can be incorporated into almost any form of instruction. It is particularly useful for actively involving all students during lectures.


  1. Instructor poses a question, statement, issue or prompt to the class.
  2. Instructor provides an amount of time for individual thinking (students can mentally rehearse or jot down ideas).
  3. Instructor asks students to pair up and share responses. Students may clarify and elaborate.
  4. Instructor can randomly choose a number of pairs to share their responses with the class.


Centre for Teaching Support & Innovation. (n.d.). #5: Think-Pair-Share. University of Toronto

The K. Patricia Cross Academy. (n.d.). Think-Pair-Share [Video]. YouTube.