Appendix B: Useful Verbs for Developing Learning Outcomes

This list of useful verbs for creating learning outcomes is arranged according to Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, which identifies different cognitive domains associated with levels of learning.  Bloom’s taxonomy was developed in 1956, and was revised in 2001 by Bloom’s colleagues, Lorin Anderson and David Krathwahl.  The revised taxonomy is presented here.

REMEMBERING:  recall of  information
arrange; cite; collect; define; describe; duplicate; enumerate; find; identify; locate; memorize; record; recognize; match; relate; select; name; label; list; order; quote; recall; repeat; reproduce; select; show; state

UNDERSTANDING: demonstration of comprehension
associate; classify; compare; contrast; convert; describe; estimate; explain; extend; generalize; give examples; identify; interpret; justify; locate; outline; paraphrase; predict; recognize; report; restate; review; select; summarize; trace; translate

APPLYING: applying knowledge in a new context
apply; calculate; chart; choose; classify; complete; compute; construct; contribute; develop; discover; dramatize; employ; experiment; extend; illustrate; implement; instruct; interpret; modify; operate; participate; practice; predict; show; solve; teach; text; use

ANALYZING: supporting assertions through the use of evidence and arguments identifying causes and patterns
advertise; analyze; break down; categorize; classify; collect; compare; connect; contrast; correlate; criticize; diagram; differentiate; distinguish; divide; establish; explain; identify; illustrate; infer; investigate; order; outline; prioritize; question; select; separate; verify

EVALUATING: coming to a judgement on the value of information or the validity of arguments
appraise; argue; assess; choose; conclude; convince; criticize; critique; debate; decide, defend; determine; discriminate; evaluate; grade; integrate; interpret; judge; justify; predict; prioritize; rate; recommend; reframe; score; select; support; value

CREATING: combining or grouping knowledge to come to new conclusions
adapt; anticipate; arrange; assemble; collect; combine; compile; construct; decide; design; develop; facilitate; formulate; generate; generalize; imagine; incorporate; individualize; integrate; invent; modify; negotiate; organize; plan; propose; rearrange; reconstruct; reorganize; revise; select; structure; substitute; validate

[Verbs correlating to Bloom’s Taxonomy drawn from]